Florida's Ville Peltonen and New Jersey's Zach Parise each scored in the first round of the shootout, but Nathan Horton failed on the Panthers' chance in the second round. Florida captain Olli Jokinen then fired wide on his club's final attempt.
Jim Dowd broke out of a 4½-month scoring drought with a pair of goals in regulation for the Devils, who remained two points ahead of Pittsburgh atop the Atlantic Division.
Florida broke a 2-2 tie on a goal by Peltonen just 2:31 into the third period, but Dowd tied it when he beat Ed Belfour, who was at the top of the crease.
New Jersey goalie Martin Brodeur matched his career high with 43 wins, a total he reached three previous times.
The Devils were 3-5-2 in their previous 10 games and needed to win to stay ahead of the Penguins, who beat Atlanta in Pittsburgh earlier Saturday.
Peltonen gave Florida a short-lived lead 2:31 into the third period when he rebounded the puck into the empty left corner of the net after Brodeur made a pad save on Chris Gratton.
The Panthers also failed to hold a 2-0 advantage.
David Clarkson cut New Jersey's deficit to a goal with 6:54 left in the second when he swatted the puck past a sprawled Belfour after Juraj Kolnik was sent off for hooking. It was Clarkson's second goal in five games since being recalled from the minors.
Dowd tied it 3:48 later on a rebound, beating Belfour on his glove-side. It was his first goal in 55 games and second of the season.
Florida went up 1-0 on Jokinen's 36th goal at 12:18 of the first. Jokinen sent the puck over Brodeur's left shoulder from just above the left circle. He has nine points (five goals, four assists) in four games.
Jozef Stumpel missed a chance to add to Florida's lead when his shot caromed off the crossbar just above where Jokinen had scored with two minutes left in the period during a Panthers power play.
Florida had been 15-3-3 when leading after the first period.
Stephen Weiss made it 2-0 when he rebounded a miss by Martin Gelinas that glanced off a Devils defender and put it in from the left side at 9:25 of the second period.
Notes: Belfour extended his franchise-record for consecutive starts to 26. ... Florida is 13-4-3 at home since Dec. 25. ... With 151 goals, Jokinen is one behind Pavel Bure for second place on Florida's career list. ... Devils LW Patrik Elias was scratched for the fifth straight game due to a groin strain. ... Dowd hadn't scored since Nov. 7 against Carolina. ... Brodeur won 43 games during the 1997-98, 1999-2000, and 2005-06 seasons.