Terms of the deal were not immediately available. The 27-year-old split las season with Atlanta and Nashville and recorded 13 points (3-10) in 67 games.
"Vitaly Vishnevski is a defenceman who brings a physical presence to our hockey team," said Devils GM Lou Lamoriello. "He has both size and experience, and we feel he can play our type of hockey."
Earlier this month, the Devils lost veteran defenceman Brian Rafalski when he signed with Detroit as an unrestricted free agent.
Vishnevski was selected fifth overall by Anaheim in the 1998 entry draft. In 483 career games with the Ducks, Thrashers and Predators, he has 61 points (14-47).
The native of Kharkov, Ukraine, has represented Russia at the 2006 Olympics, 2004 World Cup of Hockey and two IIHF World Hockey Championships.