Terms of the contract were not released. Peca, 33, had four goals and 11 assists in 35 games with the Toronto Maple Leafs last year before suffering a season-ending leg injury Dec. 22. The unrestricted free agent made US$2.5 million last season.
"We are very pleased to add a player of Michael's ability, character and presence to our hockey club," Columbus general manger Scott Howson said Tuesday in a statement. "We expect that Michael will be a very strong addition to our leadership group."
Peca has 164 goals and 245 assists in 728 career games with Vancouver, Buffalo, the New York Islanders, Edmonton and Toronto.